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Show related SlideShares at end. The prefix "cyano" means blue. These bacteria have pigments that absorb specific wavelengths of light and give them their characteristic colors.
Many cyanobacteria have the blue pigment phycocyanin, a light-harvesting pigment it absorbs red wavelengths of light. Cyanobacteria all have some form of the green pigment chlorophyll, which is responsible for harvesting light energy during the photosynthetic process Current Biology, Some others also have the red pigment phycoerythrin, which absorbs light with the green region and bestows the bacteria with a pink or red color.
The eukaryotic algae are polyphyletic , meaning that they did not evolve from a single common ancestor. This is clearly demonstrated in our current understanding of the tree of life — a family tree of all living organisms organized by their various evolutionary relationships.
Eukaryotic algae are found distributed among many different groups, or major branches of the tree. Archaeplastida includes plants and a variety of photosynthetic algal species such as the chlorophytes a subset of green algae , charophytes mainly freshwater green algae and glaucocystophytes unicellular freshwater algae.
Chlorophytes are the green algae that commonly form lichen partnerships with fungi. Dinoflagellates are found within Alveolata.
These are primarily unicellular marine and freshwater organisms. Many dinoflagellates have lost their plastids — the site of photosynthesis — through the course of evolution and are phagotropic or live as parasites.
Still other algal species are found distributed amongst Alveolata, Excavata, Rhizaria and Chromista Current Biology, Probably the most important contribution of algae to our environment and well-being is the generation of oxygen through photosynthesis.
According to a review article published in the journal Biofuels, petroleum is partially derived from ancient algae deposits.
Harvey's four divisions are: red algae Rhodospermae , brown algae Melanospermae , green algae Chlorospermae , and Diatomaceae.
At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a different group of workers e. Müller and Ehrenberg studying the Infusoria microscopic organisms.
Unlike macroalgae , which were clearly viewed as plants, microalgae were frequently considered animals because they are often motile.
Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-Darwinian classifications, e. Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytes , rhodophytes , chrysophytes , xanthophytes , bacillariophytes , phaeophytes , pyrrhophytes cryptophytes and dinophytes , euglenophytes , and chlorophytes.
Later, many new groups were discovered e. With the abandonment of plant-animal dichotomous classification, most groups of algae sometimes all were included in Protista , later also abandoned in favour of Eukaryota.
However, as a legacy of the older plant life scheme, some groups that were also treated as protozoans in the past still have duplicated classifications see ambiregnal protists.
Some parasitic algae e. In other cases, some groups were originally characterized as parasitic algae e. Furthermore, groups like the apicomplexans are also parasites derived from ancestors that possessed plastids, but are not included in any group traditionally seen as algae.
These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably filamentous. A range of algal morphologies is exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated groups is common.
The only groups to exhibit three-dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns , and some chlorophytes.
Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids , but colonial and nonmotile forms have developed independently among several of the groups.
Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the lifecycle of a species, are.
In three lines, even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation. The innovation that defines these nonalgal plants is the presence of female reproductive organs with protective cell layers that protect the zygote and developing embryo.
Hence, the land plants are referred to as the Embryophytes. Many algae, particularly members of the Characeae species,  have served as model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the water permeability of membranes, osmoregulation , turgor regulation , salt tolerance , cytoplasmic streaming , and the generation of action potentials.
Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants, but in algae, too. Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms.
In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates organic substances to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells.
The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae. Examples are:. Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific structure".
In nature they do not occur separate from lichens. It is unknown when they began to associate. A photobiont may be associated with many different mycobionts or may live independently; accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species.
The photobiont possibly triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont. Trentepohlia is an example of a common green alga genus worldwide that can grow on its own or be lichenised.
Lichen thus share some of the habitat and often similar appearance with specialized species of algae aerophytes growing on exposed surfaces such as tree trunks and rocks and sometimes discoloring them.
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates of the order Scleractinia stony corals. These animals metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts.
Dinoflagellates algal protists are often endosymbionts in the cells of the coral-forming marine invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by generating sugar and oxygen immediately available through photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced by the host.
Reef-building stony corals hermatypic corals require endosymbiotic algae from the genus Symbiodinium to be in a healthy condition.
Endosymbiontic green algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, breadcrumb sponges Halichondria panicea. Rhodophyta , Chlorophyta , and Heterokontophyta , the three main algal divisions , have lifecycles which show considerable variation and complexity.
In general, an asexual phase exists where the seaweed's cells are diploid , a sexual phase where the cells are haploid , followed by fusion of the male and female gametes.
Asexual reproduction permits efficient population increases, but less variation is possible. Commonly, in sexual reproduction of unicellular and colonial algae, two specialized, sexually compatible, haploid gametes make physical contact and fuse to form a zygote.
To ensure a successful mating, the development and release of gametes is highly synchronized and regulated; pheromones may play a key role in these processes.
The Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium located in the National Museum of Natural History consists of approximately , dried specimens, which, although not exhaustive no exhaustive collection exists , gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the number of algal species that number remains unknown.
Another checklist reports only about 5, species. Regarding the difference of about 15, species, the text concludes: "It will require many detailed field surveys before it is possible to provide a reliable estimate of the total number of species Most estimates also omit microscopic algae, such as phytoplankton.
The most recent estimate suggests 72, algal species worldwide. The distribution of algal species has been fairly well studied since the founding of phytogeography in the midth century.
This dispersal can be accomplished by air, water, or other organisms. Due to this, spores can be found in a variety of environments: fresh and marine waters, air, soil, and in or on other organisms.
The spores of freshwater algae are dispersed mainly by running water and wind, as well as by living carriers. Ocean water presents many vastly different habitats based on temperature and nutrient availability, resulting in phytogeographic zones, regions, and provinces.
To some degree, the distribution of algae is subject to floristic discontinuities caused by geographical features, such as Antarctica , long distances of ocean or general land masses.
It is, therefore, possible to identify species occurring by locality, such as "Pacific algae" or "North Sea algae". When they occur out of their localities, hypothesizing a transport mechanism is usually possible, such as the hulls of ships.
For example, Ulva reticulata and U. Mapping is possible for select species only: "there are many valid examples of confined distribution patterns.
Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial environments, and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow and ice.
The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column phytoplankton provide the food base for most marine food chains.
In very high densities algal blooms , these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.
Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in various aquatic systems. Due to this, the species composition of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical pollutants.
On the basis of their habitat, algae can be categorized as: aquatic planktonic , benthic , marine , freshwater , lentic , lotic ,  terrestrial , aerial subaerial ,  lithophytic , halophytic or euryhaline , psammon , thermophilic , cryophilic , epibiont epiphytic , epizoic , endosymbiont endophytic , endozoic , parasitic , calcifilic or lichenic phycobiont.
Agar , a gelatinous substance derived from red algae, has a number of commercial uses. Alginic acid, or alginate, is extracted from brown algae.
Its uses range from gelling agents in food, to medical dressings. Alginic acid also has been used in the field of biotechnology as a biocompatible medium for cell encapsulation and cell immobilization.
Molecular cuisine is also a user of the substance for its gelling properties, by which it becomes a delivery vehicle for flavours.
Between , and , wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in New Mexico for alginate extraction and abalone feed. To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from local policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels.
Here, algae-based fuels hold great promise,   directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass.
The break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales : .
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers , soil conditioners , and livestock feed. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places.
Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner. Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia.
They provide many vitamins including: A, B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , niacin , and C , and are rich in iodine , potassium , iron, magnesium , and calcium.
What are Algae? Mitchell gives a lesson in algae Test Your Knowledge!